Sudbury Medical Clinics - Respiratory Diseases are a term that encompasses a large variety of pathological conditions which affect the organs and tissues which make the gas exchange possible. The conditions which fit under the designation of a respiratory disease, include problems with the bronchi, upper respiratory tract, bronchioles, trachea, pleura, pleural cavity, alveoli in addition to the nerves and muscles that are responsible for breathing. Respiratory diseases vary from mild and self-limiting such as the common cold for example, to life-threatening conditions such as bacterial pneumonia, ling cancer and pulmonary embolism.
Pulmonology is the study of respiratory disease and a physician specializing in this field particularly is called a pulmonologist. Different names utilized for this particular medical practitioner include: a thoracic medicine specialist, a respiratory medicine specialist, a respirologist and a chest medicine expert.
Respiratory diseases could be classified in a variety of different ways; either by the tissue or organ involved or by the type and pattern of associated signs and symptoms, or by the etiology or cause of the disease.
Inflammatory Lung Disease
Inflammatory Lung Disease is characterized by a high neutrophil count. Some examples consist of: emphysema, acute respiratory distress syndrome, chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder and cystic fibrosis.
A common cause of acute respiratory disease is an allergic response caused by exposure to different agents and foods. There are some very common allergens found in particular foods like for instance lemon, radish, sea foods like some prawns and fatty fish, peanuts, bananas, ice creams and dairy, pomegranates, arrowroot, lemon, lady's finger and berries. Weather conditions can likewise affect several people since dusty and sandy weather during summer can make the quality of air poor for individuals who are sensitive.
Obstructive Lung Diseases
This grouping of diseases pertain to issues of the airways consisting of the bronchi, bronchioles and alveoli. They become reduced in volume or else that have impeded the free flow of gas, making it more difficult to move air in and out of the lungs.
COPD or Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
Asthma is an example of COPD. In this obstructive lung disease, the airways become damaged and this causes them to narrow.
Restrictive Lung Diseases or Interstitial Lung Diseases
This is a category of respiratory disease which is characterized by a loss of lung compliance. These lung diseases cause increased lung stiffness and incomplete lung expansion. IRDS or likewise referred to as Infant Respiratory Distress Syndrome is an example.
Respiratory Tract Infections
Infections can affect whatever part of the respiratory system. They are usually divided into upper respiratory tract infections and lower respiratory tract infections.
Upper Respiratory Tract Infection
The most common kind of upper respiratory infection is the common cold. Infections of the upper respiratory tract particular organs can consist of tonsillitis, pharyngitis, sinusitis, laryngitis and otitis media are also in this category.
Lower Respiratory Tract Infection
The most common lower respiratory tract infection is pneumonia. This particular lung infection will typically be due to Streptococcus in the Western world. Tuberculosis is a large reason for pneumonia all around the world. Various fungi and viruses could lead to pneumonia also, like for instance pneumocystis pneumonia and acute respiratory syndrome.
Respiratory tumours are either benign or malignant.
Pleural Cavity Diseases
Pleural cavity diseases comprise emphysema and mesothelioma. A pleural effusion is a collection of fluid within the pleural cavity. This can be due to situations like congestive heart failure and cirrhosis, since the fluid from the bloodstream shifts into the pleural cavity. Diseases here may even occur from TB, pleura inflammation, pulmonary embolus, mesothelioma and other conditions.
A hole in the pleura which covers the lung and allows air in the lung to escape into the pleural cavity is referred to as a pneumothorax. In this instance, the affected lung collapses like a balloon that is inflated. A tension pneumothorax is a severe type of this where the air cannot escape in the pleural cavity and the pressure gets bigger eventually compressing the heart and blood vessels, leading to a dangerous life-threatening situation.
Pulmonary Vascular Diseases
Pulmonary Vascular Diseases are certain conditions that affect the pulmonary flow. Examples of these diseases comprise: Pulmonary arterial hypertension, Pulmonary hemorrhage, Pulmonary edema and Pulmonary embolism.
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